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Title: Design of digital synchronism checking relay for interconnected power grids
Authors: Mudassar Iqbal
Sohaib Saad, Muhammad
Shahid Farooq
Keywords: BS Thesis
High Voltage
Transmission System
Issue Date:  10
Publisher: University of Management and Technology
Abstract: In this project we have designed a circuit to connect to parts of interconnected system energized by two different sources. By interconnecting separate utilities with the high voltage transmission system, it is possible to pool both generation and demand, not only providing a number of economic and other benefits, including a more efficient bulk transfer of power from generation to demand centers. The interconnected transmission system, by linking together all participants across the transmission system, makes it is possible to select the cheapest generation available. Transmission circuits tend to be far more reliable than individual generating units, and enhanced security of supply is achieved because the transmission system is better able to exploit the diversity between individual generation sources and demand. An interconnected transmission system enables surplus generation capacity in one area to be used to cover shortfalls elsewhere on the system, resulting in lower requirements for additional installed generation capacity, to provide sufficient generation security for the whole system. Without transmission interconnection, each separate system would need to carry its own frequency response to meet demand variations, but with interconnection the net response requirement only needs to match the highest of the individual system requirements to cover for the largest potential loss of power (generation) rather than the sum of them all. Main idea is to calculate voltage, frequency and phase angle of both sides using digital sampling and compare these values. If they lie in tolerable range then permission to close command is issued for respective circuit breaker. High performancePIC18F452 RISC CPU is used for processing the inputs. Sinusoidal signals from both ends of system are converted to digital form and after half wave rectification these samples are used for calculation of voltage. To measure frequency input sine wave is converted to square wave and then positive edge triggered external interrupts are used to count the number of cycles in one second. Measuring phase angle was quite an interesting task and caused a lot of effort. Time difference between starting of two waves is used to compute phase angle. Monitoring the system using synchro check relay before synchronization of supplies for the confidence of utility can save from a lot of trouble caused by out of step trippings.
Description: Project Advisor: Mr. Asif Hussain
Appears in Collections:Department of Electrical Engineering

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